May 02, 2016

India: Freedom of Expression, Growing Intolerance and Concepts of Nationalism (Ram Puniyani)

Communalism Watch

by Ram Puniyani

Since BJP led NDA has come to power the national scene is suffering a severe jolt as far as the values of Indian Constitution are concerned. Unlike the earlier NDA Government, this time BJP is having a simple majority on its own and is dictating the terms. This time BJP’s parent organization’s agenda of Hindu nationalism is in full flow. One after the other issue is being raised on emotive ground, undermining the genuine needs of society, bypassing the values of Indian Constitution. The latest in the series has been the one related to the issues around patriotism, freedom of expression and Indian Nationalism.


On the back of the death of Rohith Vemula in Hyderabad Central University (HCU), [1] one of the most prestigious University of the country Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) has been targeted by the ruling Modi Sarkar. The frightening things which happened in HCU were just the beginning of attack on autonomy of universities, on the free thinking in a democracy. Rohith was forced to kill himself by the machinations of ABVP, which had brought pressure through a BJP MP on the ministry to get Rohith expelled from hostel and to stop his fellowship. Similarly the local ABVP unit brought pressure through its usual channels to intimidate and stifle the democratically elected student union in JNU.

Prior to this the BJP led NDA government had tried to stifle the autonomy and freedom of expression in other educational campuses also. The places like Madas IIT, FTII, IIT Mumbai, and Hyderabad Central University had seen the central government’s interference to suppress the democratic discussions and debates in these campuses. [2] In Madras; IIT Ambedkar Periyar Study Circle was banned, in Hyderabad Central University Rohith Vemula and his friends of Amedkar Students Association were harassed and expelled from Hostels, in IIT Mumbai the Director and the Board of Governor’s Chairman had to resign to narrate few of the incidents.

Freedom of Expression

The suppression of freedom of expression was operative in all these places. In JNU it is alleged that in JNU some anti India; Pro-Pakistan slogans were shouted. Some doctoring of videos was done. On that pretext Kanhaiya Kumar, the president of the JNUSU was arrested and the charges of sedition were slapped on him. The original video also makes it clear that he did not shout these slogans. He neither shouted the slogans nor can anybody be arrested on the charge of shouting slogans. [3] The constitutional position as clarified by noted lawyer Soli Sorabjee is that incitement to violence alone can be termed anti-National. Interestingly the masked men who shouted the slogans have neither been arrested, no attempt in that direction is known. [4]

Delhi police, working under Home Minister Rajnath Singh of BJP; went on recklessly to put the charge of sedition against Kumar. The lawyers in the court indulged in violence against those who looked like JNU students and later against journalists. One BJP MLA is involved in mercilessly beating up a CPI activist. This MLA also said that had he got the gun he would have shot those raising anti-India slogans. The same violence was repeated by lawyers the next day also and when Kanhaiya was being brought to court he was also beaten.

All this came as a part of the attacks on freedom of expression in different educational institutions. This is blatant attack by RSS controlled ABVP-BJP to crush the democratic secular voices in the country. As in Rohith Vemula case the ABVP, has become emboldened to call all those opposing their politics as anti national and are getting the state support to intimidate the voices for social justice; the progressive voices. BJP related organizations are creating a mass hysteria around ‘Anti national’. All those who don’t endorse the ‘RSS promoted Hindutva nationalism’ are being called as anti national.
The propaganda, assertion of anti-Nationalism, has been uniformly spoken of by the Sangh Parivar leaders. The second observation is that attempt to demonize JNU students looked to be succeeding in beginning but was deflated soon. The propaganda was that JNU is anti National, deshdrohi, and JNU is the den of anti India activities. [5] One recalls that all this demonization of JNU has started with this Government coming to power. The RSS affiliates, VHP etc. took out marches to JNU gate to protest against the anti National JNU students and faculty.

Nationalism Test

In tune with the attack on freedom of expression Sangh Parivar has devised a ‘nationalism test’. As per this test one has to shout ‘Bharat Mata ki jai’ to prove one’s patriotism. To defy this assertion Asadudding Owaisi of MIM, vehemently said he will not shout this even if a knife is put on his throat. To back it up (April, 2016) Baba Ramdev, the entrepreneur cum yoga guru, while referring to Muslims said “Some person wears a cap and stands up, and “… says I will not say 'Bharat Mata ki jai' even if you decapitate me. This country has a law, otherwise let alone one, we can behead lakhs…if anybody disrespects Bharat Mata, we have the capability of beheading not one but thousands and lakhs.” Just before this Maharashtra Chief Minister Fadanvis asserted that those who refuse to chant Bharat Mata Ki jai have no right to live in India. [6]

Growing Intolerance

This freedom of expression issue has come on the back drop of the ‘growing Intolerance’ which raged the country. In 2015 many an eminent writers, artists, film makers and scientists returning their well earned honors. This was not in response to one particular incident but was anguish being expressed against the growing intolerance in the society. This intolerance has been building up in the country since this Government came to power in May 2014. [7]
Instead of doing introspection as to these eminent citizens are returning awards they were humiliated and asked as to why they did not return the awards when anti Sikh violence took place or when Kashmiri Punidts were evicted from Kashmir Valley. The establishment and their henchmen forgot that awards were also not returned when Mumbai violence, or Gujarat Carnage 2002 or when Kandhamal violence took place. The point was that the atmosphere has undergone a qualitative change with Modi Sakar coming to power.

When Dr. Dabholkar, Com Pansare and then Prof Kalburgi were killed over a period of months, the danger signals started being perceived but still it took the beef lynching of Mohammad Akhlaq and burning of dalit children that led a perception in the society that something has drastically changed in the society, and the spate of returning of Sahitya Academy, National and state, awards followed in quick succession. Their protest was against the rising intolerance in the society. The incidents that followed and ran parallel to these ‘award-returns’ were equally horrific. The killing of a trucker on the assumption that he is carrying cows for slaughter, beating of a MLA in Kashmir Assembly by BJP legislatures, hanging of two youth on the similar issue and the scattered incidents of attacks on Muslims on the ground of beef consumption is too striking. [8]

Even after the awards started being returned the BJP leadership looked down upon the writers/scholars and overlooked the phenomenon which has lead to returning of awards. To mock these writers Buddhi Shuddhi puja path (purification of intellect ritual) was organized.[9] The Haryana Chief Minister Manoharlal Khattar, an old RSS pracharak, said that Muslims can live here but only if they will give up beef eating. And lately the minister Gen V.K. Singh has accused that those protesting against intolerance are doing it for money.

Disturbed by what is going on, the President Pranab Mukherjee on three occasions urged the nation to uphold, pluralism, the core civilizational value of the country and to uphold tolerance. The Vice President Hamid Ansari reminded the Government that it is the duty of the state to uphold the ‘right to life’ of citizens. The index of the changing social atmosphere is reflected by the statements of two outstanding citizens of the country. Julio Reibero, the top cop, expressed his pain and anguish by saying that “as a Christian suddenly I feel stranger in my own country.”[10] And the renowned actor Naseeruddin Shah had to point out that “Have never been aware of my identity as a Muslim until now.”

Hindu Nationalism

These are not ordinary times. The values of freedom of expression, pluralism and tolerance have been pushed to the margins. With this Government in power all the wings of communal politics, the RSS affiliates, have unleashed themselves in full blast. These acts are being dictated by the agenda of Hindu nationalism.

There is a combination of the Government guided by this ideology of Hindu nationalism and the so called ‘fringe elements’, are working in tandem. Now the so called fringe elements are occupying the center stage, and so the ‘qualitative change’ has taken place in the situation. [11] The flood of awards being returned is due to the situation created by deeper communalization of society, which is the manifestation of dangers of Hindu nationalism. This is manifested in growing intolerance, shrinking liberal space, attack on plurality and all this is leading to the insecurity of weaker sections of society and religious minorities. These phenomena have qualitatively transcended the earlier limits.

Resurgence of Hindu nationalism:

While the concept of Hindu Nationalism is very old, it was brought to the fore yet again by Narendra Modi who as a Prime-Ministerial candidate of BJP-NDA, in an interview (July 2013) said that he was born a Hindu, he is a nationalist, so he is a Hindu Nationalist! [12] Due to BJP occupying the seat of power the Hindu nationalist politics is being implemented in a full-fledged way. Hindu nationalism is a politics and a category with a specific meaning and agenda. This is the part of the ideology and practice of Modi’s parent organizations, BJP-RSS.

Indian Nationalism

During colonial period the rising classes of industrialists, businessmen, workers and educated classes came together and formed different organizations, Madras Mahajan Sabha, Pune Sarvajanik Sabha, Bombay Association etc. These organizations felt for the need for an over arching political organization and so went on to form Indian National Congress in 1885. INC emerged as a national platform; as Prof. K.N. Panikkar points out “Indian National Congress at the time of its formation described itself as a platform for coming together of the people of India. The conditions for ‘coming together’ were indeed occasioned by the colonial rule; but Indian Nationalism was not just a dispensation of colonialism. Its emergence was not because of but in spite of colonialism. It was not a movement which was purely oppostional; but one which addressed the tasks of Nation-building” [13]

In response to this the declining sections of society, Muslim and Hindu landlords and kings also decided to come together to oppose the all inclusive politics of Congress. INC in due course became the major vehicle of the values of freedom movement. These declining sections were feeling threatened due to the social changes and political values emerging thereby. To hide their social decline they projected as if their religion is in danger. They also did not like Congress standing up to the colonial masters. Congress had started articulating the demands of rising classes. Congress saw this country as ‘India is a Nation in the making’.

Feudal Sections: Declining classes:

The Hindu and Muslim feudal elements together formed United India Patriotic Association in 1888. The lead was taken by Nawab of Dhaka and Raja of Kashi. Later due to British machinations the Muslim elite from this association separated and formed Muslim league in 1906, while in parallel to this the Hindu elite first formed Punjab Hindu Sabha in 1909 and then Hindu Mahasabha in 1915. These communal formations argued for Muslim Nationalism and Hindu nationalism respectively. Hindu nationalists also developed the political ideology of Hindutva, articulated particularly by Savarkar in 1923 in his book ‘Hindutva or Who is a Hindu?’ Based on this ideology of Hindutva-Hindu Nationalism, RSS was formed in 1925. This situation was an enviable situation for British as they understood that such groups would weaken the rising national movement. On one side they quietly supported the Muslim League and parallel to this they handled Hindu Mahasabha with velvet gloves.
The values of rising classes were embodied in the persona of Bhagat Singh, Ambedkar, Gandhi, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and many others mainly revolved around Indian Nationalism, built around the principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The ideology of Muslim League selectively drew from some Muslim traditions to assert the hierarchy of feudal society. While Hindu Mahasabha and RSS had tomes like Manusmriti to talk about graded hierarchies of caste and gender. Muslim and Hindu communalists were not part of freedom movement. Freedom movement was all inclusive and aimed at secular democratic values. Muslim and Hindu communalists drew from glories of respective Kings of the past and kept aloof from anti British struggle, some exceptions are always there to show the evidence of their participation in the freedom struggle.

Gandhi’s attempt to draw the masses in to anti British struggle was the major point due to which the Constitutionalists like Jinnah; traditionalists of Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha further drifted away and consolidated themselves after 1920s. The trajectory of Hindu Nationalism from the decade of 1920 becomes very clear, to be on the side of British to oppose the Muslim Nationalists. Muslim League also played similar politics of keeping aloof from freedom movement. The Freedom of the country and tragic partition led to followers of Muslim League, the affluent Muslims, going to Pakistan while leaving sufficient backlog to sustain Muslim communalism here.

Hindutva: RSS

RSS was formed in 1925 in Nagpur. The immediate cause of its formation was the discomfort amongst the upper castes-landlord elements due to the non cooperation movement launched by Gandhi as a part of freedom movement. This movement brought into fold the average people into freedom movement; this caused discomfort to the elite sections of society. At the same time the Non Brahman movement was shaking the social relations of Brahmin-landlord domination on one side and the rise of dalits-workers on the other.

RSS, as we saw, took off from Hindu Mahasabha, an organization which was formed by the Hindu Kings and landlords. Hindu Mahasabha’s major ideologue was Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. As per him Hindu Nationalism is traced to Aryans settling here, "the Aryans who settled in India at the dawn of history already formed a nation, now embodied in the Hindus...Hindus are bound together not only by the tie of the love they bear to a common fatherland and by the common blood that courses through their veins and keeps our hearts throbbing and our affection warm but also by tie of the common homage we pay to our great civilization, our Hindu culture." [14]

He propounded the ideology of Hindutva, Hinduness, which is the concept of Nationalism based on Brahiminical values of hierarchy of caste and gender. RSS founders were to make this concept of Hindutva and Hindu rashtra as their base ideology and politics. The founders of RSS were very inspired by the ideas of nationalism of Hitler, the Nazism There were fraternal links between RSS and Fascists and Nazis. Marzia Casolari [15] points out, “ The existence of direct contacts between the representatives of the (Italian) fascists regime, including Mussolini and Hindu Nationalists demonstrates that Hindu Nationalism had much more than an abstract interest in the ideology and practice of fascism and Mussolini must not be considered as dictated by an occasional curiosity, confined to few individuals; rather it should be considered as culminating result of the attention that Hindu Nationalists, especially in Maharashtra, focused on Italian Dictatorship and its leader. To them, fascism appeared to be an example of conservative revolution.” At the same time RSS had contempt towards the concept of Indian nationalism, which was the ideology of Nationalism, led by Gandhi.

RSS view of History shaped its politics. It held that this is a Hindu nation from times immemorial. Hindu society was flawless till Muslims came here in eight century. As per RSS ideology due to the atrocities of Muslims ill effects of caste system started coming into Hindu society. [16] Same way the place of women in society also started going down due to Muslims. It said that India has always been a Hindu nation and Muslims are aggressors and foreigners. RSS began training its volunteers into this version of History. This communal view had nothing to do with the truth. The concept being promoted by Congress, Gandhi-Nehru-Patel-Maulana Azad that India is a land belonging to people of all religions is wrong and what is needed is to build a Hindu nation and undermine the Muslim nation. It decided to keep aloof from direct electoral politics and went to create a set of volunteer, swayamsevaks trained in the ideology of Hindutva. It kept aloof from freedom movement, as freedom movement was based on the values of secularism and democracy, while RSS was for Hindu nation and perpetuation of Brahminical values in newer garb. In contrast to all embracing Indian Nationalism, RSS has a narrow view of the nation, “As a child of this soil, our well-evolved society has been living here for thousands of years. This society has been known especially, in modern times, as Hindu society. This is a historical fact. For it is the forefathers of Hindu people who have set up standards and traditions...prescribed duties and rights...(and) shed their blood in defense of the sanctity and integrity of the Motherland. That all this, has been done by Hindu people is a fact in which our history of thousands of years bears eloquent testimony. It means that only Hindus have been living here as child of soil.” [17]

RSS: Political Roots

RSS is exclusively male organization and when Laxmibia Kelkar wanted women to be taken into RSS, they were advised to form a subordinate organization, Rashtra Sevika Samiti. In the very name of this organization the word swayam (self) is missing as this organization, like all other communal organization stands for superiority of males, believes in patriarchy. [18] It discouraged people from participating in movements related to freedom. Barring few exceptions none from RSS went to jail during freedom movement. And those who happened to go to jail went either for looking for more recruits for RSS or accidentally went to jail and later on apologized to British and got themselves release from the prison.

RSS, Hindu Mahasbha held Gandhi as the person responsible for appeasement of Muslims, for partition of the country etc. On this charge Nathuram Godse and ex Pracharak of RSS, who joined Hindu Mahasabha killed the father of the nation. At that point Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said that it is due to the hate spread by RSS that the country had to lose its father, Gandhi. Savarkar was also one of the accused in the murder of Gandhi, but he was let off for lack of corroborative evidence. [19]
RSS started forming other subordinate organizations. One of them was Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad, which started working amongst students. In 1951, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee of Hindu Mahasabha in collaboration with RSS formed Bhartiya Jansangh. Bhartiaya Jan Sangh raised identity related issues and resorted to war mongering. It also demanded that, Muslims should be Indianized. It remained a marginal force till it joined the Jaya Prakash movement and got the chance to become part of Janata Party. Meanwhile RSS was silently infiltrating in all the wings of state and society, bureaucracy, police, education, media, judiciary and army. It was working to oppose the progressive liberal values by promoting religiosity and conservatism in cultural arena.

Political Arena: Bharaiya Jansangh: Bhartiya Janata Party

Jansangh joined Janata Party and came to power in 1977, its leaders became the part of Government. Using this opportunity they further planted their workers in media and other parts of the state apparatus. After splitting Janata Party, the Jan Sangh component remerged as Bhartiya Janata party on the grounds of Gandhian Socialism. [20] The values which it never believed, but had to project those for electoral purposes! It lent support to Rajiv Gandhi in 1984 elections. Meanwhile it gave birth to Vishwa Hindu Parishad and Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram. VHP started taking up emotive issues and Ram temple issue was made the center of their political credo. Also they went on to form Bajrang dal on the lines of storm troopers of Nazi party in Germany.

Communal Violence

During 1960s and 1980s, also it kept doing its work of propagating Hate against minorities, first against Muslims and then against Christians. The result was anti minority violence. In anti Muslim violence, amongst the victims of violence around 80% are Muslims. [21] Most of the inquiry committee reports have concluded that riots are generally begun by RSS affiliates, pretexts are created for that right in advance. [22] Also due to communalization of state apparatus most of the guilty of the crime are generally not punished. Many a times other political leaders have also used the communal violence for their narrow political goals. The agitation around Ram Temple created a great deal of social hysteria, leading to Babri demolition and intense violence in Mumbai-Bhopal-Surat and other places. Mumbai violence of 92-93 shook the whole country and instilled a great amount of fear amongst the minotieis.

Due to violence the RSS base went on becoming stronger and its political wing BJP went on becoming stronger to the extent that it could grab power at the center in 1996. Later again it came to power and ruled the country, under RSS supervision for six years. From 1997, in order to scare away the Christian missionaries from Adivasi areas, the areas where their work is leading to empowerment of poor Adivasis, the violence started and during its course, they also burnt Pastor Graham Stewart stains, on the charge that he is doing conversion work. The Wadhva Commission, which went into this murder, opined that Pastor had not done any conversions. Most horrific form of anti Christian violence was witnessed in the BJP ruled Gujarat and later BJP ally Biju Janata dal ruled Orissa (2008). With every act of communal violence BJP becomes stronger. [23]

Hindu Nationalism: Political Agenda

The major issue taken up by these nationalists was opposition to cooperative farming, public sector and they undertook a program called ‘Indianization of Muslims’. The identity related issues have been the staple diet for religious nationalist tendencies. ‘Cow as our mother’, Ram Temple, Ram Setu, abolition of article 370 and Uniform civil code has been the foundation around which emotive hysterical movements have been built. [24] While they keep bringing to our notice as to under whose rule more riots have taken place, one forgets that the root of communal violence lies in ‘Hate other’ ideology spread by communal streams. And most of the communal violence led to coming to power of communal party. Its major offshoot is polarization of communities along religious lines. The polarization brought about by the politics of Hindu nationalism or Muslim nationalism is around identity of religions.

Modi himself, a dedicated RSS swayamsevak, has been steeped in the ideology of Hindu nationalism. He glosses over the fact that the large masses of Indian people, Hindus never called and do not call themselves Hindu nationalists. Gandhi was not a Hindu nationalist despite being a Hindu in the moral and social sense. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was not a Muslim nationalist, despite being a devout Muslim, being a Muslim scholar of highest caliber. During freedom movement also most of the people of all religions’ identified with Indian Nationalism and not with religious nationalism as being projected by Modi and company. Even today people of different religions identify with Indian nationalism and not with religious Nationalism on the lines of Modi and his ilk.

Contrasting Agendas

Hindu nationalism will require a Ram Temple; Indian nationalism requires schools, universities and factories for employing the youth. Hindu nationalism is exclusive and divisive, Indian Nationalism is inclusive; rooted in the issues of this world, and not the identity related ones. Unfortunately Hindu nationalists have been raising the pitch around identity issues undermining the issues of the poor and marginalized. The Indian Nationalism, the product of our freedom movement is being challenged by the Hindu nationalism in India, Buddhist Nationalism in Myanmar and Sri Lanka and is a major threat to the process of democratization in those countries; Muslim Nationalism has wrecked havoc in Pakistan, and many other places. [25]

Nationalism as the Phenomenon

It is being regarded by Hindu nationalists as if Nation is an eternal phenomenon. Human society has passed through various phases of social organization before coming to the phase of nationalism. Starting from tribes, Nomads to Kingdoms we came to the concept of nation state. In earlier phases of societies-social organizations the human relationship and structure of society has been different. Tribes had their own way of having the tribal chief and the norms of relationships. With Nomadic society again these norms changed. Today’s Nation states are preceded by the Kingdoms where the concept of citizenship itself was missing. Nations are a phenomenon where the concept of citizenship and social norms take a total transparent form. The supremacy of King and the associated clergy takes a backseat, laws come up, Constitutions come up and citizenship becomes the primary focus. The concept of global organizing structures also develop in the wombs of modern states-Nations. League of Nations and United Nations were the major steps in this area. Even the cooperation of regional countries, European Union, SAARC is a glorious example. European Union went closest to abolishing national boundaries. The limitations of nations, nationalism were highlighted by the souls like Rabindranath Tagore, where nationalism comes as a hindrance to further progress of mankind with standing armies-arms race eating up the very vitals of the society. [26]

Contemporary Times

This is the dark tunnel of History, where such invocations of religion in the arena of politics are trying to take a dominant social place, as being witnessed in many parts of the World and more so over in India. One hopes the distinction between religious nationalism and Indian nationalism will not be lost focus of!

Hindu nationalism, does not subscribe to the affirmative action, so the term appeasement of minorities has been floated. For Hindu nationalists, the proactive supportive action for vulnerable religious minorities is a strict no, while for democratic nationalism, this is the norm. One has to see the clever ploy of the Prime Minister aspirant, to call himself a Hindu nationalist. This is one more attempt to indulge in dividing the Indian society along religious lines.
These arguments show the deeper agenda in a way. The anti national rhetoric has been created to generate a mass hysteria against those disagreeing with BJP politics. The resorting to violence on this pretext clearly shows that this is a concerted effort to browbeat the practices and ideas which are not in keeping with the RSS-BJP mindset. This hysteria has been created to distract the attention from the social movement building up around the death of Rohith Vemula. The all round anger on the Rohith issue had put the BJP on the back foot. This creation of mass hysteria around anti India slogans has been created and is leading to street violence. This is an attempt on the part of BJP associates to wrest the initiative away from the movement which is building around Rohith. Apart from the attempt to abolish autonomy of universities this is also an attempt to sidetrack the issue of Dalits. The latter has also been reflected in the resignation of three office bearers of ABVP of JNU. These office bearers in their letter point out their dissatisfaction with the Government-BJP-ABVP interference in JNU affairs and their attitude of undermining the dalit issue as reflected in their attitude to the death of Rohith.


1. http://www.firstpost.com/politics/rohiths-death-is-another-reminder-that-the-bjp-must-stop-meddling-with-varsities-student-politics-2589582.html
2. https://hillele.org/2015/06/23/undermining-national-institutions-to-create-regimented-minds-irfan-engineer/
3. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/forensic-experts-say-kanhaiya-video-was-doctored/1/600808.html
4. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/anti-national-slogans-are-not-sedition-says-former-attorney-general-sorabjee/1/596950.html
5. http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/jnu-home-to-anti-national-block-says-rss-linked-magazine-1239375
6. http://scroll.in/latest/806127/if-not-for-law-would-have-cut-off-heads-of-those-refusing-to-say-bharat-mata-ki-jai-baba-ramdev
7. http://thecompanion.in/returning-honours-is-an-attempt-to-save-democracy/
8. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/jharkhand-latehar-district-muslim-cattle-traders-hanged-five-arrested-section-144/
9. http://www.huffingtonpost.in/2015/10/19/buddhi-shuddhi-puja-authors_n_8328488.html
10. http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/i-feel-i-am-on-a-hit-list/
11. http://www.frontline.in/the-nation/indias-sawdust-caesar/article7961470.ece
12. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-i-am-a-hindu-nationalist-born-hindu-narendra-modi-1860293
13. K.N.Panikkar, Nationalism: Then and Now, Frontline, April 15, 2016, Page 97
14. Savarkar, V.D. ‘Hindutva or Who is a Hindu’, 1924, Page108
15. Marzia Casoleri, Hindutva’s Foreign Tie-up in the 1930s-Archival evidence, The Economic and Political Weekly, Jan 22, 2000, p.219
16. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/rss-rewrites-history-dalits-created-by-invaders/story-eyBt99Y2XbICUbadzCsSkM.html
17. Bunch of Thoughts, 1966, 123-24, from Khaki Shorts Saffron Flags, Basu et al Orient Longman 1994.
18. http://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/holier-than-cow/283593
19. https://www.quora.com/Why-did-Sardar-Patel-ban-the-Rashtriya-Swayamsevak-Sangh-RSS
20. http://www.thehindu.com/2004/09/11/stories/2004091112771200.htm
21. Omar Khalidi, Indian Muslims since Independence, Vikas Delhi, 1995
22. Teesta Setalvad, “Who Casts the first Stone’ Combat Communalism, March 1998.
23. http://ncronline.org/news/global/indias-minority-christians-struggle-against-violence-and-persecution
24. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/we-need-to-talk-about-this-manifesto/article5879871.ece
25. http://www.countercurrents.org/puniyani290814.htm
26. http://int.search.tb.ask.com/search/GGmain.jhtml?st=sb&ptb=E4A984B2-AF7F-462F-8329-F333CD73DB8F&n=7829e367&ind=2016011111&p2=^HJ^xdm168^YYA^in&si=CLDF5beHocoCFdETaAodjYMI3w&searchfor=Rabindranath+Tagore+Nationalism+